3DBODY.TECH 2021 - Extended abstract 21.38

D. Cataldi et al., "Predicting Muscular Strength with 3D Optical in a Diverse Adult Population", Proc. of 3DBODY.TECH 2021 - 12th Int. Conf. and Exh. on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 19-20 Oct. 2021, #38, https://doi.org/10.15221/21.38.


Predicting Muscular Strength with 3D Optical in a Diverse Adult Population


Devon CATALDI 1, Jonathan BENNETT 1, Brandon QUON 1, Yong En LIU 1, Nisa KELLY 1, Steve HEYMSFIELD 2, John A. SHEPHERD 1

1 University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA;
2 Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge LA, USA


Lower limb muscular strength is a well-known predictor of all-cause mortality and physical function in adults. Assessment of lower limb muscle strength using the criterion isokinetic dynamometer method is expensive and often not accessible in clinical or field settings. Accessible alternatives to the dynamometer would allow for broader screening of the risk and consequences of frailty, including falls and fractures. Recently, 3-dimensional optical (3DO) scanners have been investigated as an alternative to manual anthropometry and other body composition measures for health assessment. 3DO whole-body scans have the potential for predicting strength due to their ability to produce over 200 variables of total and regional anthropometric measurements such as limb length and girth. Our previous studies have found only modest 3DO anthropometry and isokinetic knee extension; female: R2=0.24, RMSE=31.28, male: R2=0.34, RMSE=54.51. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is another standard clinical tool for estimating body composition, such as skeletal muscle (SMM), phase angle (PhA), which could be a potential complementary tool to 3DO given its ability to give valid estimates of muscle strength.

Our objective is to identify the optimum estimate of lower limb strength using a combination of 3DO anthropometry measures and BIA.

Participants were recruited from two US clinical sites for the ShapeUp! Adults study to represent the variance of the US population and equally stratified by sex, BMI, age, and five race/ethnicities. Isokinetic right leg strength (N/m2) was measured by Biodex System 4 (Biodex Medical Systems Inc) or HUMAC NORM (Computer Sports Medicine Inc) dynamometer. Whole-body 3DO scans with repositioning on a ProScanner (Fit3D, Inc) and a tetrapolar multi-frequency BIA assessment (InBody S10) were taken. Demographic, 3DO, and BIA predictor variables were selected by step forward regression, using the lowest predicted sum of squared residuals and a correlation value of 0.001 for inclusion into the model.

For this analysis, 458 participants were available (204 male). Four models were created to predict strength; each included demographic information and separated by sex. The demographics-only model performed poorly: (1a) Female: adj-R2=0.22, RMSE=29.59; (1b) Male: adj-R2=0.30, RMSE=47.96. The strongest predictor variable was height for both male and female. The 3DO model performed slightly better than previously reported: (2a) Female: adj-R2=0.29, RMSE=27.27; (2b) Male: adj-R2=0.31, RMSE=47.82. The strongest predictor variable was thigh girth for females and waist girth for males. The BIA model performed slightly better than the 3DO models: (3a) Female: adj-R2=0.37, RMSE=25.74; (3b) Male: adj-R2=0.41, RMSE=44.18. The strongest predictor variable was SMM for females and 50 kHz PhA for males. The combination of 3DO and BIA model performed the highest of all models: (4a) Female: adj-R2=0.57, RMSE=21.27; (4b) Male: adj-R2=0.56, RMSE=387.30. The strongest predictor variable was SMM for females and 50 kHz PhA for males. All male models performed better than female's.

Using 3DO anthropometry alone or BIA alone does not produce a reliable model for strength predictions. The combination of 3DO and BIA better-predicted strength than either measure alone. Strength predictions appear to be more accurate in males than in females, but further investigation is needed.


3D optical, Body composition, bioelectrical impedance, muscle strength


Extended abstract: 2138cataldi-eabs.pdf
Proceedings: 3DBODY.TECH 2021, 19-20 Oct. 2021, Lugano, Switzerland
Paper id#: 38
DOI: 10.15221/21.38
Presentation video: 3DBodyTech2021_38_Cataldi.mp4

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