Paper 12.133

J. Lee et al., "Three-Dimensional Analysis of Facial Asymmetry of Healthy Hispanic Children", in Proc. of 3rd Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 2012, pp. 133-138,


Three-Dimensional Analysis of Facial Asymmetry of Healthy Hispanic Caucasian Children


Juhun LEE 1,2, Brian KU 1, Adriana C. DA SILVEIRA 1,3, Mia K. MARKEY 1,2

1 The University of Texas at Austin, Austin (TX), USA;
2 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (TX), USA;
3 Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin (TX), USA


The objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of facial asymmetry of healthy Hispanic Caucasian children residing in Central Texas, USA. 3D facial surface images of healthy Hispanic Caucasian participants (41 boys, 39 girls) currently residing in Central Texas, USA (aged 7 and 12 years) were obtained using a 3dMDcranial system (3dMD, Atlanta, GA) under an approved IRB protocol. Facial features of each hemiface (left and right) were quantified using 27 anthropometric distances between 22 facial landmarks computed from the 3D facial surface images. Two types of distances were included: 1) Euclidean (2 orbital, 3 nasal, 8 oral, and 6 profile) and 2) Geodesic (1 orbital, 1 nasal, 6 profile) distances. The ratio of each facial feature of the left hemiface to the corresponding facial feature of the right hemiface was calculated. The one-sample Student's t test with a Bonferroni correction was employed to assess the extent of facial asymmetry. Overall, for both genders, the facial features from the right side are larger than those from the left side. It was found that healthy Hispanic Caucasian children have fairly symmetric faces. However, the data suggest that there is a statistically significant asymmetry of facial features for healthy Hispanic Caucasian children. For example, the ratio of the nostril (sbal - sn) was asymmetric for healthy Hispanic Caucasian boys and the ratio between the Geodesic distances from tragion to nasion (t - n) was asymmetric for both genders. The result of this study is consistent with previous studies of other racial/ethnic groups. This information will serve as reference data for surgeons who conduct reconstructive surgery for children with congenital deformities of their faces.


reconstruction surgery, 3D stereophotogrammetry, facial asymmetry, facial features


Full paper: 12.133.pdf
Proceedings: 3DBST 2012, 16-17 Oct. 2012, Lugano, Switzerland
Pages: 133-138

Copyright notice

© Hometrica Consulting - Dr. Nicola D'Apuzzo, Switzerland,
Reproduction of the proceedings or any parts thereof (excluding short quotations for the use in the preparation of reviews and technical and scientific papers) may be made only after obtaining the specific approval of the publisher. The papers appearing in the proceedings reflect the author's opinions. Their inclusion in these publications does not necessary constitute endorsement by the editor or by the publisher. Authors retain all rights to individual papers.

Proceedings of 3DBODY.TECH International Conferences on 3D Body Scanning & Processing Technologies, © Hometrica Consulting, Switzerland