3DBODY.TECH 2019 - Paper 19.266

J. Pei et al., "The Detection of the Upper Boundary of Breasts Using 4D Scanning Technology", in Proc. of 3DBODY.TECH 2019 - 10th Int. Conf. and Exh. on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 22-23 Oct. 2019, pp. 266-271, doi:10.15221/19.266.


The Detection of the Upper Boundary of Breasts Using 4D Scanning Technology


Jie PEI 1, Linsey GRIFFIN 2, Jintu FAN 1,3, Susan P. ASHDOWN 1

1 Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA;
2 Department of Design, Housing, and Apparel, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA;
3 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong


Defining the boundary of female breasts is an unavoidable and very essential step before estimating the volume or surface area of the breast. Anthropometric measurements such as these are critical to the understanding of breast shape and the development of bra products. However, a non-contact method that accurately detects the boundary between breasts and chest wall, for breasts evaluated in the upright body position, has not been reported before. In this study, with the help of 4D body scanning and taking advantage of the time delay in the vertical displacement between the breasts and the chest wall during physical activity, we 4D-scanned 26 female participants using the Temporal 3dMD system and proposed a method to visualize the amount of variability for the relative displacement in the vertical direction, to facilitate the definition of the upper boundary of breasts. By viewing each breast as a cone or hemisphere, and processing the scan through vertical slicing, we were able to make all the scans having the same number of points (7200= 180×40. There were 40 vertical slices in total, and on each slice, there was one point located at every other degree from -180 to 180) sorted in the exact same order. After proper alignment, we calculated the z-coordinate difference between a scan captured while the participant was running (there were nine dynamic scans that formed a gait cycle) and the corresponding scan of the same participant captured in static standing (the static scan). Then we were able to calculate the standard deviation (SD) value of the z-coordinate differences (i.e. the relative vertical displacements) across the nine dynamic scans. Heat maps were then created with the SD values mapped onto the 3D surface of the static scan and presented by gradient colors. This study is one of the first comprehensive studies that investigate the vertical displacement and the shape deformation of breasts during running using 4D scanning technology. Ultimately, the method and results can increase the understanding of breast kinematics, and benefit the product design of bras, especially for sports bras.


Full paper: 19266pei.pdf
Proceedings: 3DBODY.TECH 2019, 22-23 Oct. 2019, Lugano, Switzerland
Pages: 266-271
DOI: 10.15221/19.266

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