3DBODY.TECH 2019 - Paper 19.049

H. Mitchell, "Progress in Human Breast Profiling using Shape-From-Shading", in Proc. of 3DBODY.TECH 2019 - 10th Int. Conf. and Exh. on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 22-23 Oct. 2019, pp. 49-57, doi:10.15221/19.049.


Progress in Human Breast Profiling using Shape-From-Shading



School of Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia


Experiments have been undertaken in a continuation of a previously reported investigation into whether useful quantitative breast shape information may be deduced by numerical analysis of a single digital photograph of the breast. The work utilises the principle of extracting shape from image shading, known as shape-from-shading (SfS). The SfS method attempts to deduce surface gradients, and hence shape, across an object, by using the reflectance levels which are apparent in a monochrome digital image of an object. The method requires that the object has smooth physical texture and light even colouring. The significant feature of SfS is its simplicity, as it needs no special equipment, and involves the numerical analysis of a single digital photograph, which may be obtained with a mobile phone. The various features of SfS make it attractive for breast measurement. However, it is theoretically impossible to deduce two parameters of surface slope from one reflectance level, so the method faces difficulties which are prohibitive in many applications.
This major theoretical predicament may be overcome by using known surface shape information. The approach which has been investigated here involves obtaining profiles horizontally across the breast centre. This approach, which is feasible because of the regular geometry of the breast, has been proposed previously by the writer. The most recent tests of the technique, including both accuracy tests of the technique on objects of known shape and trials of breast profile measurement, are promising, and suggest that the concept is practicable. Sources of error are discussed. The impetus for further testing and development depends on the prospects of the use of breast information of this type, whether for medical or perhaps apparel purposes.


Full paper: 19049mitchell.pdf
Proceedings: 3DBODY.TECH 2019, 22-23 Oct. 2019, Lugano, Switzerland
Pages: 49-57
DOI: 10.15221/19.049

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