Paper 14.143

P. Wren et al., "Establishing a Pre and Post-3D Bodyscanning Survey Process for Able-Bodied UK Women Aged 55 Years+ to Determine an Appropriate Waist Position for Garment Development", in Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 2014, pp. 143-154,


Establishing a Pre and Post-3D Bodyscanning Survey Process for Able-Bodied UK Women Aged 55 Years+ to Determine an Appropriate Waist Position for Garment Development


Paula Wren 1, Simeon Gill 2, Steven Hayes 1, Phoebe Apeagyei 1

1 Manchester Metropolitan University, Department of Apparel, Hollings Faculty, Manchester, UK;
2 Manchester University, School of Materials, Manchester, UK


Change in human body morphology is well-documented for developmental growth from childhood to adult. However, the morphological change from adulthood to older age is less detailed and less discussed within literature concerned with anthropometric application and clothing construction. This, perhaps, explains why females aged 55+ are the demographic most frustrated with the fit of ready-to-wear garments. A prerequisite for the accurate generation of size chart and pattern development relies on precision in the location and demarcation of landmarks, therefore an understanding of the changes in body size and shape, how this impacts on anthropometric practice, and, more specifically, the body landmarks is fundamental to provide correctly fitting garments patterns for mature women. Consequently, the aim of this research is to establish a pre- and post-3D body scanning survey process for able-bodied UK women aged 55 years and over, giving them the opportunity to self-select a suitable waist location for clothing from four defined waist positions.
A pragmatic, mixed-method methodology was developed to evaluate anthropometric theory and praxis, landmark placement, and subjective body image estimation, to determine the success of their practical application in developing appropriate garment patterns for this demographic.
The methodology consisted of four stages: recruitment of eighty (80) women aged 55+ using the three strategies of convenience, snowball and random sampling; the 3D body scanning of each participant using two TC[2] scanners; the use of a visual aid to allow the self-evaluation of personal waist position for garment development; and the evaluation of the visual and numerical scan data against this self-evaluation.
The findings indicated that recruitment of this demographic is problematic as it is reliant on subject willingness for participation and this group of subjects were often critical of their body morphology. The questionnaire response rate was 67% which reduced the sample size down to 52 women. The visual aid indicated that the participants were able to readily identify the position of their waist regardless of body morphology.
Rectangle, hourglass, triangle and bottom hourglass body shapes were represented in the sample set. The most common body shape shared by this demographic was that of the rectangle and analysis of waist height from the floor position before and after waist landmark modification indicated that the rectangle was the body shape which was most prone to waist placement error from the participants point of view. All body shapes required waist height modification to the original waist height landmark based on participant evaluation of where they felt it comfortable to wear their waistband. Comparative analysis confirmed distinct variation in subjects' evaluation of waist positioning for a garment and scanner MMU MEP definitions. 59% of participants' waists landmarks were placed differently by the scanner compared to the placement by the subjects themselves.
This study concludes that to improve landmark placement accuracy providing a visual aid to the participant for evaluation in tandem with the practitioner evaluation would be a practice that is useful for common but difficult to locate landmarks, such as the waist. Responses from this visual aid operator evaluation the scan data and more specifically the landmarks.


Full paper: 14.143.pdf
Proceedings: 3DBST 2014, 21-22 Oct. 2014, Lugano, Switzerland
Pages: 143-154
DOI: 10.15221/14.143

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